RefrigerantHQ's Pressure Charts

One of the very first steps when it comes to diagnosing your home air conditioner, refrigerator, or even your vehicle’s air conditioner is understanding the temperature and the current pressure that your system is operating at. Having these facts along with the saturation point, the subcool, and the superheat  numbers for the refrigerant you are working on are essential when it comes to really understanding what is going wrong with your system.

After a visual inspection the very next step for the most seasoned technicians is pulling out their gauges and checking the pressure and temperature. It just becomes second nature after enough calls. I have heard stories of rookie techs calling some of the pros on their team for help on a system that they’re stuck on. It doesn’t matter what the situation is. It doesn’t matter if you’re in Miami or in Fargo. It will never fail that one of the first questions the pros ask the rookie is what is your subcool and what is your superheat? Having  and understanding these numbers is key to figuring out what to do next.

But, these numbers won’t do you any good if you don’t know what refrigerant you are dealing with and what the refrigerant’s boiling point is at each pressure level. This article aims at providing you with just that information.

R-410A Pressure Chart

R-410A, or Puron, is one of the most popular refrigerants in today’s modern world. However, if you rewind just fifteen or twenty years you would find that very little people even knew about it. Most contractors and technicians worked with R-22 systems for home and commercial air conditioning. R-22 had been the standard bearer refrigerant for nearly fifty years. However, R-22 harmed the Ozone Layer and a replacement refrigerant needed to be found. This is where our friend R-410A came into play. New machines from 2010 and onwards were banned from using R-22. Instead, they were outfitted with R-410A. 

If you would like to read more about R-410A  refrigerant please click here to be taken to our refrigerant fact sheet.

Let’s take a look at our pressure chart:

–37.7 -38.7 12 82.7
–34.7 -37.0 14 96.5
–32.0 -35.6 16 110.3
–29.4 -34.1 18 124.1
–36.9 -38.3 20 137.9
–24.5 -31.4 22 151.7
–22.2 -30.1 24 165.5
–20.0 -29.0 26 179.3
–17.9 -27.7 28 193.1
–15.8 -26.6 30 206.8
–13.8 -25.4 32 220.6
–11.9 -24.4 34 234.4
–10.1 -23.4 36 248.2
–8.3 -22.4 38 262.0
–6.5 -21.4 40 275.8
–4.5 -20.3 42 289.6
–3.2 -19.6 44 303.4
–1.6 -18.7 46 317.2
0 -17.8 48 330.9
1.5 -16.9 50 344.7
3 -16.1 52 358.5
4.5 -15.3 54 372.3
5.9 -14.5 56 386.1
7.3 -13.7 58 399.9
8.6 -13.0 60 413.7
10 -12.2 62 427.5
11.3 -11.5 64 441.3
12.6 -10.8 66 455.1
13.8 -10.1 68 468.8
15.1 -9.4 70 482.6
16.3 -8.7 72 496.4
17.5 -8.1 74 510.2
18.7 -7.4 76 524.0
19.8 -6.8 78 537.8
21 -6.1 80 551.6
22.1 -5.5 82 565.4
23.2 -4.9 84 579.2
24.3 -4.3 86 592.9
25.4 -3.7 88 606.7
26.4 -3.1 90 620.5
27.4 -2.6 92 634.3
28.5 -1.9 94 648.1
29.5 -1.4 96 661.9
30.5 -0.8 98 675.7
31.2 -0.4 100 689.5
32.2 0.1 102 703.3
33.2 0.7 104 717.1
34.1 1.2 106 730.8
35.1 1.7 108 744.6
35.5 1.9 110 758.4
36.9 2.7 112 772.2
37.8 3.2 114 786.0
38.7 3.7 116 799.8
39.5 4.2 118 813.6
40.5 4.7 120 827.4
41.3 5.2 122 841.2
42.2 5.7 124 855.0
43 6.1 126 868.7
43.8 6.6 128 882.5
44.7 7.1 130 896.3
45.5 7.5 132 910.1
46.3 7.9 134 923.9
47.1 8.4 136 937.7
47.9 8.8 138 951.5
48.7 9.3 140 965.3
49.5 9.7 142 979.1
50.3 10.2 144 992.8
51.1 10.6 146 1006.6
51.8 11.0 148 1020.4
52.5 11.4 150 1034.2
53.3 11.8 152 1048.0
54 12.2 154 1061.8
54.8 12.7 156 1075.6
55.5 13.1 158 1089.4
56.2 13.4 160 1103.2
57 13.9 162 1117.0
57.7 14.3 164 1130.7
58.4 14.7 166 1144.5
59 15.0 168 1158.3
59.8 15.4 170 1172.1
60.5 15.8 172 1185.9
61.1 16.2 174 1199.7
61.8 16.6 176 1213.5
62.5 16.9 178 1227.3
63.1 17.3 180 1241.1
63.8 17.7 182 1254.8
64.5 18.1 184 1268.6
65.1 18.4 186 1282.4
65.8 18.8 188 1296.2
66.4 19.1 190 1310.0
67 19.4 192 1323.8
67.7 19.8 194 1337.6
68.3 20.2 196 1351.4
68.9 20.5 198 1365.2
69.5 20.8 200 1379.0
70.1 21.2 202 1392.7
70.7 21.5 204 1406.5
71.4 21.9 206 1420.3
72 22.2 208 1434.1
72.6 22.6 210 1447.9
73.2 22.9 212 1461.7
73.8 23.2 214 1475.5
74.3 23.5 216 1489.3
74.9 23.8 218 1503.1
75.5 24.2 220 1516.8
76.1 24.5 222 1530.6
76.7 24.8 224 1544.4
77.2 25.1 226 1558.2
77.8 25.4 228 1572.0
78.4 25.8 230 1585.8
78.9 26.1 232 1599.6
79.5 26.4 234 1613.4
80 26.7 236 1627.2
80.6 27.0 238 1641.0
81.1 27.3 240 1654.7
81.6 27.6 242 1668.5
82.2 27.9 244 1682.3
82.7 28.2 246 1696.1
83.3 28.5 248 1709.9
83.8 28.8 250 1723.7
84.3 29.1 252 1737.5
84.8 29.3 254 1751.3
85.4 29.7 256 1765.1
85.9 29.9 258 1778.8
86.4 30.2 260 1792.6
86.9 30.5 262 1806.4
87.4 30.8 264 1820.2
87.9 31.1 266 1834.0
88.4 31.3 268 1847.8
88.9 31.6 270 1861.6
89.4 31.9 272 1875.4
89.9 32.2 274 1889.2
90.4 32.4 276 1903.0
90.9 32.7 278 1916.7
91.4 33.0 280 1930.5
91.9 33.3 282 1944.3
92.4 33.6 284 1958.1
92.8 33.8 286 1971.9
93.3 34.1 288 1985.7
93.8 34.3 290 1999.5
94.3 34.6 292 2013.3
94.8 34.9 294 2027.1
95.2 35.1 296 2040.8
95.7 35.4 298 2054.6
96.2 35.7 300 2068.4
96.6 35.9 302 2082.2
97.1 36.2 304 2096.0
97.5 36.4 306 2109.8
98 36.7 308 2123.6
98.4 36.9 310 2137.4
98.9 37.2 312 2151.2
99.3 37.4 314 2165.0
99.7 37.6 316 2178.7
100.2 37.9 318 2192.5
100.7 38.2 320 2206.3
101.1 38.4 322 2220.1
101.6 38.7 324 2233.9
102 38.9 326 2247.7
102.4 39.1 328 2261.5
102.9 39.4 330 2275.3
103.3 39.6 332 2289.1
103.7 39.8 334 2302.8
104.2 40.1 336 2316.6
104.6 40.3 338 2330.4
105.1 40.6 340 2344.2
105.4 40.8 342 2358.0
105.8 41.0 344 2371.8
106.3 41.3 346 2385.6
106.6 41.4 348 2399.4
107.1 41.7 350 2413.2
107.5 41.9 352 2427.0
107.9 42.2 354 2440.7
108.3 42.4 356 2454.5
108.8 42.7 358 2468.3
109.2 42.9 360 2482.1
109.6 43.1 362 2495.9
110 43.3 364 2509.7
110.4 43.6 366 2523.5
110.8 43.8 368 2537.3
111.2 44.0 370 2551.1
111.6 44.2 372 2564.9
112 44.4 374 2578.6
112.4 44.7 376 2592.4
112.6 44.8 378 2606.2
113.1 45.1 380 2620.0
113.5 45.3 382 2633.8
113.9 45.5 384 2647.6
114.3 45.7 386 2661.4
114.7 45.9 388 2675.2
115 46.1 390 2689.0
115.5 46.4 392 2702.7
115.8 46.6 394 2716.5
116.2 46.8 396 2730.3
116.6 47.0 398 2744.1
117 47.2 400 2757.9
117.3 47.4 402 2771.7
117.7 47.6 404 2785.5
118.1 47.8 406 2799.3
118.5 48.1 408 2813.1
118.8 48.2 410 2826.9
119.2 48.4 412 2840.6
119.6 48.7 414 2854.4
119.9 48.8 416 2868.2
120.3 49.1 418 2882.0
120.7 49.3 420 2895.8
121 49.4 422 2909.6
121.4 49.7 424 2923.4
121.7 49.8 426 2937.2
122.1 50.1 428 2951.0
122.5 50.3 430 2964.7
122.8 50.4 432 2978.5
123.2 50.7 434 2992.3
123.5 50.8 436 3006.1
123.9 51.1 438 3019.9
124.2 51.2 440 3033.7
124.6 51.4 442 3047.5
124.9 51.6 444 3061.3
125.3 51.8 446 3075.1
125.6 52.0 448 3088.9
126 52.2 450 3102.6
126.3 52.4 452 3116.4
126.6 52.6 454 3130.2
127 52.8 456 3144.0
127.3 52.9 458 3157.8
127.7 53.2 460 3171.6
128 53.3 462 3185.4
128.3 53.5 464 3199.2
128.7 53.7 466 3213.0
129 53.9 468 3226.7
129.3 54.1 470 3240.5
129.7 54.3 472 3254.3
130 54.4 474 3268.1
130.3 54.6 476 3281.9
130.7 54.8 478 3295.7
131 55.0 480 3309.5
131.3 55.2 482 3323.3
131.6 55.3 484 3337.1
132 55.6 486 3350.9
132.3 55.7 488 3364.6
132.6 55.9 490 3378.4
132.9 56.1 492 3392.2
133.3 56.3 494 3406.0
133.6 56.4 496 3419.8
133.9 56.6 498 3433.6
134 56.7 500 3447.4
134.5 56.9 502 3461.2
134.8 57.1 504 3475.0
135.2 57.3 506 3488.7
135.5 57.5 508 3502.5
135.8 57.7 510 3516.3
136.1 57.8 512 3530.1
136.4 58.0 514 3543.9
136.7 58.2 516 3557.7
137 58.3 518 3571.5
137.3 58.5 520 3585.3
137.6 58.7 522 3599.1
137.9 58.8 524 3612.9
138.3 59.1 526 3626.6
138.6 59.2 528 3640.4
138.9 59.4 530 3654.2
139.2 59.6 532 3668.0
139.5 59.7 534 3681.8
139.8 59.9 536 3695.6
140.1 60.1 538 3709.4
140.4 60.2 540 3723.2
141 60.6 544 3750.7
141.6 60.9 548 3778.3
142.1 61.2 552 3805.9
142.7 61.5 556 3833.5
143.3 61.8 560 3861.1
143.9 62.2 564 3888.6
144.5 62.5 568 3916.2
145 62.8 572 3943.8
145.6 63.1 576 3971.4
146.2 63.4 580 3999.0
146.7 63.7 584 4026.5
147.3 64.1 588 4054.1
147.9 64.4 592 4081.7
148.4 64.7 596 4109.3
149 65.0 600 4136.9
149.5 65.3 604 4164.4
150.1 65.6 608 4192.0
150.6 65.9 612 4219.6
151.2 66.2 616 4247.2
151.7 66.5 620 4274.8
152.3 66.8 624 4302.3
152.8 67.1 628 4329.9
153.4 67.4 632 4357.5
153.9 67.7 636 4385.1
154.5 68.1 640 4412.6
155 68.3 644 4440.2
155.5 68.6 648 4467.8
156.1 68.9 652 4495.4
156.6 69.2 656 4523.0
157.1 69.5 660 4550.5
157.7 69.8 664 4578.1
158.2 70.1 668 4605.7
158.7 70.4 672 4633.3
159.2 70.7 676 4660.9
159.8 71.0 680 4688.4
160.3 71.3 684 4716.0
160.8 71.6 688 4743.6
161.3 71.8 692 4771.2
161.8 72.1 696 4798.8


There you have it folks. I hope this article was helpful and if you find that something is inaccurate here in my chart please do not hesitate to reach out to me. I have sourced this the best I could but there is always going to be conflicting data.  I’ve seen it multiple times on various refrigerants. I’ll search for a refrigerant’s pressure chart and get various results all showing different pounds per square inch temperatures.

The aim with this article is to give you accurate information so again, if you see anything incorrect please let me know by contacting me here. On top of this post we are also working on a comprehensive refrigerant pressure/temperature listing. The goal is to have every refrigerant out there listed with a pressure/temperature chart that is easily available. 

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson



Not a lot of you may have heard the term or name Puron before. But a lot of you have most likely heard the name Freon before. Freon and Puron are two different types of refrigerant and to understand this difference we first need to understand where these names come from. First, let’s take a look at Freon.

The term Freon is actually a brand name trademarked by the DuPont, now Chemours, corporation. What that means is that Freon is a brand of refrigerant. It is the same way that Dr. Pepper is a brand of soda. We don’t call every soda out there Dr. Pepper. No, we either call it soda or we call it by it’s proper brand name. The same can be said about refrigerants.

Freon is a brand name of a specific type of refrigerant, mainly R-12 and R-22. The term Puron is also a brand name. The Puron brand refers to the HFC refrigerant R-410A. R-410A is the refrigerant that has replaced Freon R-22. You see, R-22 Freon was phased down across the country due to the Chlorine that it contained. When vented into the atmosphere the Chlorine would damage the Ozone layer. In order to stop this R-22 Freon was phased down and was replaced with the non Ozone depleting Puron R-410A.

Puron, or R-410A, is a blended HFC refrigerant that is made up of R-32 and R-125. (About fifty percent of each.) This 410A refrigerant is now the primary default for home and commercial air conditioners. Any air conditioner manufactured in 2010 or newer will most likely be using R-410A Puron. If you’re unsure what refrigerant your system uses you can find out by checking the sticker label on your outside unit.

While Puron is the ‘king’ refrigerant right now (2018) it may not stay on the throne forever. Puron doesn’t have an Ozone depletion potential but it does have a very high Global Warming Potential, or GWP. GWP is a measurement of how much a certain chemical contributes to Global Warming. The higher the GWP the more damage a chemical or refrigerant can do to the environment.

As I write this article there isn’t a preferred successor to R-410A but there are some contenders out there such as the HFC R-32. No one knows for certain when, or even if, R-410A Puron will be phased down or not. For now, we carry on with 410A.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson


How Much Does It Cost?

Most people couldn’t care less about the pricing of refrigerant. I’m sure you didn’t care at all until your air conditioner broke down. Now you have a contractor at your home or office looking over the damage, or perhaps you have already received a quote from them and you are a little surprised by how much they are charging for refrigerant. Whatever your reason is for reading this article we are going to do our best to answer your question and to give you a fair estimate on what the going price per pound on some of the most common refrigerants on the market place today.

First and foremost, let me first explain that there are hundreds of different types of refrigerants out there. No two refrigerants are the same or work the same either. The air conditioner that you are using is designed specifically for a certain refrigerant and no others. The science of refrigeration and air conditioning all boils down to basic chemistry and understanding when a refrigerant changes states either from gas to liquid or liquid to gas. Each machine is designed to accomdate that refrigernat’s specific saturation point. If you were to add the wrong refrigerant to your air conditioner you could damage or even destroy the system. You wouldn’t put diesel into a gasoline sedan would you? The same principle applies.

In this article we are going to go over some of the most popular refrigerants out there today, their applications, and where they can be found. It will be up to you to determine exactly what refrigerant you need for your repairs.

So, What Kind of Refrigerant Do I Need?

As we mentioned above, there are hundreds of varying kinds of refrigerants out there. A lot of times this can be overwhelming and confusing to a laymen as to what kind of refrigerant they need. The good news here is that for most applications there are only a select few refrigerants that are used here in the United States. In this section below we are going to highlight the most commonly used refrigerants, what their applications are, and what their price per pound is. The price per pound section will have a link to the exact price per pound on that refrigerant.

Let’s dive in and take a look:

  • Automotive Application – Nowadays nearly every vehicle is using R-134a refrigerant for their vehicles. In recent years a new refrigerant known as HFO-1234yf is being used on newer models. If you car is a few years old or brand new then you will need to check if it takes 1234yf or not. Otherwise you are fairly safe to assume that your car is taking R-134a. For those of you who are into restoring classic cars you’ll find that you may end up needing R-12 Freon.
  • Home or Commercial Air Conditioner – These ones can be a little tricky. Depending on when you got your unit you most likely either have an R-22 unit or a R-410A unit. As I said in previous articles, R-22 was phased out in 2010 for new air conditioners. R-410A has been around since 2000, but it’s popularity didn’t really take off until the 2010 deadline hit for R-22. When it comes to cost though you better hope you have a R-410A unit rather than R-22. The difference in price between the two refrigerants is astonishing.
  • Refrigerators and Freezers (Home and Commercial) – The go to refrigerant for these applications has been R-404A. There are some other alternatives out there such as CO2 (R-744), R-502, and some other new HFO refrigerants coming out soon but today if you were having to recharge one of these you are most likely going to run into 404A.


I hope that this article was able to answer your questions on refrigerant pricing and to also open your eyes on the wide variety there is within the refrigerant industry. There are two things that I want you take from this post. The first is the relative price per pound of the refrigerant you need and the second is the understanding that your contractor needs to make money too. Sure, you might know his price but you should not haggle down to zero. You should negotiate to a fair price that allows profit but also prevents gouging.

Lastly, if you are unsure what type of refrigerant your system needs please check the label/sticker on the machine. Normally it will state the refrigerant that it takes. However, if you still can’t find it then you can either contact the manufacturer or you can call a HVAC professional out to take a look. This is never something that you want to guess at.

Thanks for reading and visiting my site,

Alec Johnson


Alternatives to R-410A?

Rather you like it or not folks R-410A will be going away and it’s going to be happening a lot sooner than everyone thinks. In 2015 the Environmental Protection Agency announced that they will beginning the initial steps of phasing out R-404A in July of 2016, January 2017, and 2018. Along with that they also announced that the tried and tested R-134a will begin being phased out in the year 2020. (2021 model years.) HFCs are quickly coming to an end.

On top of the EPA’s actions on phasing out HFC refrigerants there was an amendment added to the Montreal Protocol only a few months ago in November of 2016. More than one-hundred countries met in Kigali, Rwanda. The United States, the European Union, and many other countries have been working tirelessly on getting an HFC phase out amendment added to the Montreal Protocol for years. Well the last holds out finally gave in and everyone’s dreams finally came true in late 2016. The goal of the agreement was to ban all HFC refrigerants across the world by the year 2100. The United States along with all of the other countries happily signed the agreement.

Under the signed amendment developed countries, including the United States, must reduce their use of HFC refrigerants by ten percent by 2019 from 2011-2013 levels, and then by eighty-five percent by 2036. Along with this developed countries will also have to comply with a freeze of HFC consumption levels in the year 2024. By the late 2040’s all developed countries are expected to consume no more than fifteen to twenty percent of their baselines. In order to meet these guidelines developed countries have already begun phasing out the other HFCs as we discussed above. 410A is not on the chopping block yet but it will be soon.

Everything, and I mean everything, is pointing in the direction that 410A will be no more. The only thing that I could see stopping the phase out of 410A in the near future is the presidency of Donald Trump. Now, keep in mind that this is all speculation, but Trump has said before that he doesn’t believe in Climate Change. So, if you don’t believe in something than why would your country pledge and sign a treaty saying that you would phase something out because of Climate Change? It doesn’t make sense. No one knows what Trump will do though. He may leave things the way they are or he may go back and try to renege on the treaty.

The Four Rules

The race to find an alternative refrigerant for R-410A is on. After all, 410A has to be one of the greatest used, if not the greatest, refrigerant in the world. Everyone needs a cool house and most of the time they’re either using R-22 or R-410A. Finding an alternative has proven difficult though as there has been no perfect match so far. There are four considerations companies have to consider before they can sign off on a golden ticket replacement product. These four ‘rules’ or considerations are Environment, Energy Efficiency, Safety, and Economy.

  1. If we look at the first criteria of environment we have to consider two things. One being that the new product can’t contain Chlorine like the old CFCs and HCFCs of the past. We don’t want a repeat of the O-Zone damage that we went through the eighties and nineties. The second being that the replacement cannot have a large Global Warming Potential like the HFC refrigerants used today. The whole point is to have a refrigerant that does NOT damage the environment, or at least, does not damage the environment as much as the current HFCs do.
  2. Energy Efficiency pretty much explains itself. Obviously we do not want have a gas that would be used across the world that is terribly inefficient. What good would it do to if we’re just wasting energy and impacting the environment in another way? The whole robbing Peter to pay Paul mentality. It doesn’t make sense.
  3.  Safety is another consideration that has to be factored in when finding the ‘perfect’ refrigerant. One of the major risks here is flammability. Each refrigerant has a flammability rating and some are much higher than others. If you have proper training on dealing with flammable refrigerants than there is nothing to worry about. The danger comes in if the R-410A replacement is highly flammable. Commercial units are usually left alone. Only professionals ever attempt to maintenance them. With a home unit you run the risk of having novices or ‘Bubbas,’ trying to maintenance or even install their own machine. Imagine the risk they could be taking if the refrigerant they were dealing with was extremely flammable? (Like R-290.) The other aspect of safety is the toxicity levels of the refrigerant. If you have a leak and it is in a confined area what effect will that have on the people in that area? Will there be permanent damage to them after breathing it, or even death?
  4. Economy is the last and final aspect when looking for an alternative. What good is an alternative if no one can afford it? If a ten pound cylinder is north of $1,000 how is anyone going to be able to afford it? Cost is a large factor when considering an alternative. Truth be told I believe we’re seeing the cost problem now with the 134a replacement. The HFO 1234YF is nearly $700 for a ten pound cylinder. Imagine the cost involved if you had to refill your car after a repair? It’s quite the difference between the $100 cost of a thirty pound cylinder of 134a.

Ok, so with those four considerations in mind let’s review the possibilities of the future for replacing R-410A.

Hydroflurocarbons (HFC’s)

Yes, yes I know. R-410A is an HFC so why would we replace it with another HFC? Well, there is a push to change from 410A over to R-32 refrigerant. The thinking is that this wouldn’t be a permanent solution but more of a temporary until something better comes along. R-410A’s Global Warming Potential (GWP) is 1,725 times that of Carbon Dioxide. This large number is why 410A is being pressured to be phased out. While R-32 is an HFC it’s GWP is only 675. That is about a sixty percent decrease. It’s not a perfect bullet but it would help with the battle against Global Warming.

There are a few benefits to R-32 one of which I mentioned above. The first being the lower Global Warming Potential. The second benefit is that consumers will see a ten percent reduction in their energy usage when switching to R-32. Another pro for R-32 is the cost. It is overall much cheaper than R-410A and is readily available to purchase now. R-32 has seen wide usage across Australia and in July of 2015 was approved for limited usage by the United State’s Environmental Protection Agency. (Visit link to their website here.)

Ok, so we have see the pros of HFC-32 now let’s take a look at some of the downsides.  R-410A is classified as ‘Non-Flammable,’ according to the Safety Data Sheets. The flammability rating on 410A is ruled as class 1. When looking at the same data for R-32 we find that it is ‘Extremely Flammable,’ and is classified under a level 4 for flammability. Both of these come from each products Safety Data Sheets which can be found by clicking here for R-410A and here for R-32. And to think people were freaking out about the flammability of 410A a few years ago!

Another downside to R-32 that companies have complained about is the toxicity of breathing in the product. Proponents have rebutted saying that R-32 is no more toxic than any other refrigerant when breathed in. Which I believe is a perfectly valid point. The last downside and one that is extremely difficult to prove is that R-32 causes cancer. There has been no conclusive tests on this theory and so far it is speculation. The belief is that this rumor started in California due to their strict environmental laws.

So, in review on R-32 we have a cheaper alternative refrigerant to R-410A and one that has nearly sixty percent reduction in Global Warming Potential. But, this replacement product is extremely flammable and may put people at risk. In my opinion I do not believe this refrigerant meets the four conditions to be accepted as an acceptable substitute. (Safety comes to mind.) If we do start using HFC -32 here in the United States than I could see it being only temporary until a better HFO refrigerant comes along. I wouldn’t put money on seeing this at your next service call.

Sources on R-32:


Hydrocarbons are a different story. They have been around a lot longer than the HFOs and even HFCs. Everyone is at least somewhat familiar with them and even a laymen has heard of most of them. (Propane, Isobutane, Carbon Dioxide.) Some of these refrigerants go all the way back to the nineteenth century if you can believe it. Before the rise of CFCs such as R-12 Hydrocarbons were widely used in various establishments. One of the first air conditioned movie theaters in the early twentieth century was cooled by Carbon Dioxide.

Alright, that’s enough of a history lesson. Let’s dive in and take a look at the possible scenario on each one:

R-290 (Propane)

Alright so let’s get the selling point of R-290 out of the way now. Propane has zero O-Zone depletion potential and only a GWP of only 3. Yes, that’s right. 3. Humongous difference when comparing to 410A’s GWP of 1,725.  Right out of the gate R-290 meets the environmental criteria for an alternative. Overall it is rather energy efficient and the cost is relatively cheap coming in at right about the same cost as a thirty pound cylinder of R-410A. (A little over one hundred dollars a cylinder.) We’re three for four on propane passing the feasibility test. There is just that last one. That one that we overlooked, safety.

The disadvantages are the flammability risk, safety standards/codes, and ensuring each technician is properly trained before handling. If propane is handled in the right way and by a properly trained technician than everything will be fine. However, if ‘Bubba,’ tries to install his own unit or retrofit his own machine with propane that is where things get dangerous. A common occurrence over the years since R-22 has grown more expensive is for companies to market their R-290 product as a drop in replacement for their R-22 units. This is a dangerous practice since the R-22 machines were not meant to use propane. The end result can result in injury or an explosion.

R-290 is already seeing widespread use in India and China and now the middle eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others are expressing interest for R-290 due to it’s better performance in higher ambient temperature environments. The Environmental Protection Agency has approved R-290 for use in stand alone small charge units including retail food refrigerators and freezers. All that being said though I do not foresee seeing R-290 being widely used as a replacement for R-410A.

R-290 Sources

R-744 (Carbon Dioxide)

R-744 has no harmful environmental effects. I mean, there is nothing more natural than Carbon Dioxide. There is no O-Zone depletion potential and the Global Warming Potential is minimal. In fact as I mentioned earlier R-744 was one of the very first refrigerants used in the world only losing popularity once the easier to use R-12 was introduced.

R-744 requires very low energy to run, is non-toxic, and non flammable. The problem that comes with R-744 is not the dangers of flammability like that of R-290 but instead with economy. R-744 runs at an extremely high pressure during operation. The pressure is so high that the efficiency of the compressor suffers greatly and the durability and thickness of the pipes needs to be increased to compensate. The thickened pipes and the custom high pressure equipment increases the overall cost of R-744 for most uses.  Some could also make the argument that Carbon Dioxide refrigerant due to it’s increased pressure of 2,000 pounds per square inch also makes it dangerous to work on. That’s a tally of two out of four.

While R-744 is seeing usage in other smaller applications like that of refrigerated cases I do not foresee it being used as an alternative to R-410A due to the additional cost of the higher pressure equipment and the potential safety risk of the high pressure.

R-744 Sources

R-717 (Ammonia)

Ammonia or R-717 is often regarded as the most efficient refrigerant gas on the market today. Along with it’s energy efficiency aspect it also has no O-Zone depletion potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. The cost for R-717 is much lower than other HFC refrigerants on the market today creating a cost savings if someone was to switch over to R-717.

If we refer to the four rules again that I stated above we are three for four so far. The fourth rule, and honestly one of the most important, is safety. R-717 is not the safest refrigerant… by any means and it is one of the reasons why it is not commonly used in today’s residential market.

Like R-290 R-717 is highly flammable. Don’t let me say it though, let’s take a look at the exact wording on the safety data sheet on R-717: “Flammable. Toxic by inhalation. Causes burns. Risk of serious damage to eyes. Very toxic to aquatic organisms.” – Source. So we have a highly flammable product that has high toxicity and can cause damage to your skin and eyes. I can see why this hasn’t taken off.

While R-717 does have the safety detriments it is still widely used today in many types of manufacturing plants such as dairies, ice cream plants, frozen food production, cold storage warehouses, and meat processing plants.  I’ve said this before but I’ll say it again. This potentially hazardous material works because it is being used in a large commercial setting. The Jo Schmo do-it-yourselfer is never going to tamper or try to fix one of these commercial machines. If something goes wrong at one of these businesses they call in a professional. If R-717 becomes a mainstream refrigerant found in every home in the country than the risk of do-it-yourselfers accidentally burning themselves or worse causing an explosion goes up exponentially. For that reason alone I do not foresee R-717 being used as a suitable R-410A replacement.

R-717 Sources

Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO’s)

HFO’s are already seeing large usage in the European Union and now beginning in the United States. Most of the applications have been under the HFO 1234YF used in automobile applications. As of January 1st, 2017 cars can no longer be manufactured with R-134a systems in the EU. The United States isn’t too far off either with our final date being 2020. (2021 model year.) 1234YF is quickly replacing the R-134a market that we know today. To some it’s 1994 all over again where we phased out the R-12 in place of R-134a.

The selling point on the new  HFO’s are the environmental impact. The goal here was to create something as similar as they could to the current HFCs on the market but without the high Global Warming Potential that comes with them. For example, the 1234YF refrigerant has a global warming potential of four. For comparison, the Global Warming Potential of R-134a is over 3,000. There is a significant difference and the climate will be greatly affected if the whole world switches over to these new HFO refrigerants. (Or Hydrocarbons.)

The problem with HFOs is that they are all in developmental stage. The two conglomerate companies DuPont/Chemours and Honeywell have been putting endless hours and money into developing new HFO refrigerants that could take the place of the beloved R-410A. The other complication with HFO’s is that since they are being invented by only a few companies these same companies hold the patents on the new product. This creates an almost monopoly type setting where Honeywell and Chemours can set whatever price they want on their new Opteon and Solstice brands. Now, I’m not attacking these companies for having a high priced product. There is cost involved and I am sure it is quite high to create these new refrigerants. The reason I bring it up is for you the consumer or the business owner to realize just how expensive these refrigerants are. For example, a ten pound cylinder of the HFO 1234YF goes for about $700. For comparison a thirty pound cylinder of R-134a goes for about $120.

While there are MANY HFO refrigerants under development and available today I am only going to be looking at the possible 410A alternatives. With the introduction out of the way let’s dive into the various HFO refrigerants available today:

Opteon DR-55 (R-452B)

R-452B passed the flammability and toxicology review required by the ANSI/ASHRAE in March of 2016. Upon it’s approval it was given a preliminary ASHRAE number of R-452B. While this new alternative refrigerant from Chemours still has a somewhat high Global Warming Potential of 676 it is still sixty-five percent lower than it’s R-410A counterpart. It also comes with a lower flammability rating than other proposed R-410A solutions. (R-290 for example.)

Along with it being friendlier to the environment  and safe to use R-452B matches the capacity of R-410A allowing it to be compatible with currently used R-410A equipment. This allows for a quick and easy change of refrigerants on existing 410A units in the field.

While this refrigerant is still in the preliminary stages I could definitely see this becoming mainstream once it goes to market. It has right around the same GWP of R-32 but comes with a lower flammability rating. My only concern on this new refrigerant from Chemours is the cost. How much is this going to cost per cylinder when it rolls out this year or next? HFO’s are notoriously known for their high cost. Let’s hope that this new refrigerant doesn’t fall into that same category.

R-452B Sources

Opteon XL41 (R-454B)

R-454B is another new HFO refrigerant that was developed by the Chemour’s company. This refrigerant has the lowest GWP of all of the drop in R-410A replacements out there today. It comes in at a GWP of 466, that is seventy-eight percent lower than 410A. The formula on the refrigerant itself is a very close match to 410A and has been proved to be higher performing than 410A in some instances.

The downside of this new refrigerant is it’s mildly flammable status. While flammable refrigerants are perfectly safe when used in the right hands they can be extremely dangerous in the hands of a novice. Even though this refrigerant is in fact the lowest GWP alternative out there today I do not foresee it becoming a mainstream alternative to 410A simply because of it’s flammability rating. The chances of a homeowner hurting themselves is just too great.

R-454B Sources


I spent some time digging through Google and Honeywell’s website looking for mentions of a feasible R-410A alternative. The best that I found was a press release from 2013, four years ago, saying that they were working on a new 410A alternative. I haven’t been able to find much more news on these refrigerants. When I reviewed their website, which can be found by clicking here, I found four new Solstice HFO alternatives… but they were not for R-410A. Instead they were for R-134a, R-404A, and R-22.

I may be mistaken here and missed the boat on finding their alternatives to R-410A. If I have please let me know by sending me an e-mail and I’ll update this article. (Follow this link and scroll to the bottom to send me an e-mail.)

What’s Winning?

At this point it is hard to say but if I was to put my money down I would be betting on two refrigerants. Over the next few years we are either going to see a push for the Hydrocarbon R-32 or the new Opteon DR-55 (R-452B). As I said before I have a feeling that the cost of the new R-452B will be quite a bit higher than what we are used to today. The consideration that has to be made is the lower cost of R-32 when compared to R-452B worth the risk of extra flammability? Is it worth saving money but having that risk of flammability?


Even though the R-32 and the R-452B refrigerants may be the new normal when it comes to home air-conditioning it is important to realize that they will not last. They are good viable alternatives to the R-410A used today but they are not perfect. They still have a somewhat higher Global Warming Potential. R-32 is too flammable for some people’s taste. R-452B will most likely be to expensive for others. Who knows what the next alternative will be?

There’s no telling what the final answer will be at this point in time. The only certainty is that everything is fluid and the refrigerants that we are using today could change this year or next and that I’ll do my best to keep everyone informed! If you see anything that is incorrect or not factual please take the time to e-mail me by clicking here and I will correct as soon as I can.

Thanks for reading and if you enjoyed the article please take the time to subscribe to our mailing list by navigating to the top right of the page and registering your e-mail. Thanks again!

Alec Johnson


Well ladies and gentleman it’s that time of year again. The summer season is just around the corner. The question is what will the pricing on R-410A do over the dog days of summer?

In 2010 the United States kissed goodbye to the ever popular HCFC R-22 refrigerant and began manufacturing all new air conditioning machines to take R-410A/Puron. Even though it’s only been a short six years since 2010 R-410A has become the mainstream refrigerant across the United States and is quickly becoming popular around the world. With the phase out of HCFC R-22 the 410A market began to explode as each and every new machine required it. The last R-22 units will be fading away over the next few years and the only thing that will be left our the new, and somewhat improved, 410A units… at least for the foreseeable future.

Factors to Consider

When looking at the pricing of R-410A for 2016 there are numerous items that need to be considered. Let’s dig into a few of them now and take a look.

  • China is actively switching more and more units away from the old HCFC R-22 refrigerant and over to R-410A. In 2016 it is predicted that fifty percent of China’s newly manufactured units will take 410A. China moved much slower than the United States and the rest of the world but now that they are switching over this new demand across the market could cause the price to climb, albeit slowly. Their switch isn’t like a light bulb being flipped on, instead it’s more of a slow transition over a period of years.
  • The high Global Warming Potential of R-410A. 410A has a GWP 2,088. While this HFC refrigerant is not damaging the O-Zone layer it is actively contributing to Greenhouse Gas emissions and to Global Warming. As more and more countries switch away from the HCFC R-22 refrigerant the bigger the impact 410A will have on the climate.
  • Because of R410A’s high Global Warming Potential the rush to find an alternative refrigerant. Chemours, Honeywell, and other companies are doing their best to find a low Global Warming Potential alternative to 410A. There have been a few submissions here and there but so far not one particular refrigerant has come out on top.

Pricing Analysis

Ok, so what will the price on 410A do over the 2016 season? Well, truth be told, I do not see it moving much, if at all over the next six months. If you were to purchase a pallet of R-410A you could expect to pay around seventy to seventy-five per twenty-five pound cylinder. (forty cylinders to a pallet.) This could potentially climb a few dollars over the next few months as the heat sets in, but I don’t see it going past seventy-nine dollars a cylinder.

If you are looking to purchase a cylinder or two at a time you are looking at about ninety-five to one-hundred dollars a cylinder. If I’m looking for individual cylidners I usually buy these online from Amazon or E-Bay. These sites allow you to make a purchase, have it delivered to your door, and have the backing of some of the largest retailers in the world in case something goes wrong. It’s much safer than buying from a no-name E-commerce store.

Looking into the future of R-410A pricing it’s hard to say what will happen. The usage of 410A will inevitably climb in China year after year, but as they begin to use more other countries have begun using alternative refrigerants. Japan, for example, has begun using R-290 (Propane) instead of R-410A on some of their newer units. It looks like the moment someone starts using more 410A another person starts using less.

Not only are other countries beginning to use alternative refrigerants but refrigerant manufacturers are toiling away in their laboratories working on creating new and improved alternatives to 410A refrigerant. Just last year The Chemours Company, formerly DuPont, announced their new DR-55 refrigerant.


Overall, I would say the pricing on 410A is stable and locked in at the mid seventies in bulk purchasing and high nineties to low one-hundreds when purchasing as individual cylinders. I predict that it will stay this way for some time. As new alternatives come out and began seeing use the price on 410A will inevitably come down from the seventies and may end up in the low sixties, maybe even high fifties. The question is when will the new mainstream alternative be released?

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson


2015 Refrigerant Price Per Pound Predictions

I did a post on 2015 refrigerant predictions last November and figured I would do another post predicting this summer’s pricing as well as the fall and even into 2016. After all, it’s been six months since my last prediction post and a lot has changed. So, what is the price per pound on refrigerant for 2015? What changes are coming? What should you look out for?

The one thing to remember is that refrigerants are a commodity and pricing can jump or dive in a day’s time. The best analogy that I can make is that it is similar to the price of oil. Some days it’s at eighty dollars a barrel and other days it’s at fifty a barrel.

You never really know what’s going to happen… but you can predict using knowledge of the industry and what has been happening in the market. Or, you can just pull out your crystal ball!


R-134A 30 Pound Cylinder Refrigerant
R-134A 30 Pound Cylinder

Let’s start with the most complicated one, R-134a. R-134a is pretty much the standard refrigerant on any automobile application including cars, buses, trucks, and everything else. Over the past couple years the price on R-134a has maintained around $65-$80 a jug when buying a pallet at a time. (A pallet is forty jugs.) This price has really been the standard since I’ve been in the industry which is about eight years.

The Law-Suit

Last year in early 2014 things changed. In late 2013 a company called MexiChem filed a lawsuit at the International Trade Commission. (MexiChem is one of the largest refrigerant manufacturers in the United States. Honeywell and DuPont being the others.) MexiChem’s lawsuit stated that the Chinese product being imported into the United States was being brought in at such a low price that it was making MexiChem and other North American manufacturers not competitive in the market place.

To give an example, today you could buy a container of R-134a refrigerant from China for about $45-$50 a jug. Considering that most American made product is being bought for $65-80 a jug that leaves quite a difference in price. The distributors of this Chinese product could sell at $60 a jug and take all of the North American manufacturers’ business with ease.

Supposedly, the Chinese goverment was also subsidizing the refrigerant before it came into the United States. So, if the actual cost to manufacture the refrigerant was $35 the Chinese government would give subsides to the Chinese manufacturer and lower their price another $5.00 per jug. Not only are we dealing with imported product but now we are dealing with goverment funded imports. I can see why MexiChem was complaining.

The proposed fix in MexiChem’s lawsuit was to have the International Trade Commission levy heavy tariffs on the imported R-134a product. As I said previously the lawsuit was filed in late 2013 and was reviewed at the end of the first quarter in 2014. This is where things got interesting. It looked like the Trade Commission was going to sign with MexiChem and issue the tariffs. This sent a panic throughout the industry and caused the price of R-134a to skyrocket in  week. I remember the week well. We were buying at around $70 a jug and then all of a sudden it jumped to $110 a jug. THEN it jumped to $145 a jug… and stayed there.

The price jumped as people realized that if these tariffs were issued what was to stop the big three refrigerant manufacturers from raising their cost even higher across the market? If the tariffs put the Chinese product at $90 a cylinder why not raise the American product to $90 a cylinder and make a bunch more profit? A lot of people panicked and bought up as much product as they could before the price raised even higher which in turn caused the price to keep climbing. The price stayed above $100 pretty much all summer, but it did start to steadily decline and eventually fall below $100 again towards the end of fall.

In November, 2014 the Trade Commission came to a ruling on the lawsuit. They ruled against MexiChem stating that the Chinese product was not harming the United States refrigeration industry. I wrote an article about this back in November and it can be found by clicking here. Needless to say, MexiChem wasn’t happy. They thought it over for a few months and in January of 2015 they appealed the Trade Commission’s ruling hoping for a different outcome in 2015. The Trade Commission’s next ruling is predicted towards the end of 2015 or early 2016. It is anyone’s guess as to what they will decide.

HFC Phase Outs

On top of the pending lawsuit on R-134a there is also the inevitable phase out of 134a to consider. R-134a is an HFC class refrigerant and is widely believed to be the next big phase out in the United States. It was already phased out in the European Union and is being pushed for phase out in the US already by the Obama Administration. Unlike it’s CFC/HCFC cousins 134a is not being phased out due to it’s Chlorine content, instead it is being phased out due to it’s high Global Warming Potential (GWP). R-134a has a GWP of 1,300 and it’s new alternative refrigerant 1234YF has a GWP of 4. The concern here is not the O-Zone but of Global Warming. Every time 134a is released into the atmosphere it contributes to GreenHouse Gases and Global Warming.

Europe is always ahead of the game when it comes to climate regulations and phased out 134a a few years ago and replaced it with the new HFO-1234YF refrigerant. Here in America 134a is still widely used for most automobiles but 1234YF is gaining traction on newer vehicle models such as General Motors. It is only a matter of time before 134a slowly goes away and is replaced with the new 1234YF.

Oh, and did I mention that there is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol that is being pushed by the North American countries, the European Union, China, and India to phase out ALL HFC refrigerants? Yes, I said all. That means 404A, 410A, and 134a. Nothing has been finalized yet, but it is expected to pass during this winter’s climate summit in Dubai.

R-134a Conclusion

With all of the above information on 134a it is surprising to see that the price per jug in 2015 has actually fallen back down to the $65-$80 range again. The price slowly began to fall over the 2014/2015 winter months and now with this cold spring that we are having it is still maintaining right around the ‘usual’ price. For the rest of 2015 I would predict the price to stay relatively flat. My reasoning is as follows:

  • The Trade Commission will not be ruling on MexiChem’s lawsuit until the end of the year. I do not foresee this affecting pricing until 2016 if it affects it all.
  • The HFC phaseout meeting will occur at the end of the year as well, but even if this passes it is still a twenty to thirty year timeline. It will not happen overnight and I do not feel like there will be a panic if this passes.
  • Lastly, it’s been a cold spring where I’m at in the MidWest. I don’t know about your side of the country but it’s been a nice wet spring so the demand for HVAC hasn’t hit yet. Who knows what summer will bring though.

In conclusion I predict we’ll stay right around the $65-$80 per cylinder for the remainder of 2015. Although, 2016 is completely wide open as all of these open issues will come to fruition.

If you are looking to purchase R-134a as individual cylinders you can find them on Amazon by clicking this link.


r-404a 25 pound cylinderR-410A is slowly becoming the standard refrigerant for home and commercial buildings. If you own an air conditioning unit from the year 2010 or greater chances are it is taking R-410a as it’s refrigerant. I actually just had a new unit installed for my home and I have to say it is SOOO much more efficient than the old R-22 unit. My monthly bills were cut by about thirty percent!

On to the pricing. I’ve been watching R-410a for the past couple years and it’s price really hasn’t changed much at all. It’s been hovering at around $60-$70 per cylinder when purchasing a pallet. Back in 2013 I sold 410A over Amazon for a few months and my price hardly every changed. 410A is still ‘new’ to the industry and is not being widely used at the moment. All of the older AC units are using the CFC R-22. But, as time goes on and the years pass R-410A will become more mainstream through out the country and I would predict price to go up over the years.

That being said I do have to mention that 410A is an HFC refrigerant, just like 134a. You know what that means. It is being proposed to be phased out at this year’s climate summit. Many many countries are pushing for all HFC’s to be phased out and this is another one that falls into that category. The problem is with 410A there is not a mainstream alternative, yet. There are some companies experimenting with varying types of refrigerant such as the new HFO refrigerants, Carbon Dioxide, or even Propane. So far nothing has come out on top yet.

R-410A Conclusion

For 2015 I don’t see much at all changing on R-410A. As I said before it’s still a fairly new refrigerant and when the phase outs of HFCs do come I predict 410A to be the last of the HFCs to go. With 134a there is already an alternative HFO refrigerant and with 404A there is already an alternative HFO refrigerant. With 410A there really isn’t one… yet.

In conclusion I predict 410A to stay steady at the $60-$70 per cylinder range.

If you are looking to purchase R-410A as individual cylinders you can find them on Amazon by clicking this link.


46R-404A isn’t as big as 134a, R-22, or 410A but it definitely has it’s purpose. Ever been in a supermarket? Of course you have. All those grocery store freezers, those ice machines, vending machines, and even transport refrigeration all use 404A. So, you as a homeowner may not have a need for 404A but it is definitely everywhere you go.

As far as future and pricing R-404A is pretty much the same as 410A. There aren’t any active lawsuits on it, there aren’t any BIG changes coming, and it is an HFC refrigerant so it is expected to be phased out over the next few years. It’s just about the same price as 410A as well. 404A hovers around $75-$85 a cylinder when buying a pallet and not much higher when just buying one jug at a time. (Amazon and E-Bay are at about $90-$95 a cylinder at a time.)

The one thing to note with 404A is that there is now an alternative HFO refrigerant known as R-452A.  But, it’s not ‘THE’ alternative. It’s a poor man’s alternative. R-404A has a Global Warming Potential of 3,943. The new R-452A has a GWP of 2,140. As you can see it’s quite the reduction in GWP but compared to the 134a alternative, 1234YF, it is nowhere near good enough. 1234YF has a GWP of 4 and 452A is still way up over 2,000.

Regardless of that, ThermoKing and Carrier have begun building their new refrigerated trucks using R-452A rather than 404A. Not only that, but Coca Cola has begun switching it’s vending machines away from 404A over to Carbon Dioxide refrigerants, or R-744. Companies are leaving 404A behind in droves and it’s only going to increase as time goes on.

R-404A Conclusion

I actually predict the price of 404A to go down as we go through the summer and fall of 2015. Nothing crazy here, maybe five dollars a cylinder. It just seems that with all of these companies switching away from 404A that the demand is going to crash and the price is going to go down. Just be ready for the phase out of 404A in the next few years as we may see prices rise again.

In conclusion I predict 404A to go down about $5.00 a cylinder in the 2015 summer and fall. Price would be around $65-$75 a cylinder for one pallet.

If you are looking to purchase jugs of 404A at a time visit our Amazon partner by clicking here.


R-22 30 Pound Refrigerant Cylinder
R-22 30 Pound Refrigerant Cylinder

R-22 was the end all be all of refrigerant for fifty years. It was THE refrigerant used in home and commercial buildings. It was also one of the first types of refrigerants to be phased out via the Montreal Protocol. The phase out of R-22 was due to the Chlorine that it contained in it’s chemical composition. Chlorine when released in the atmosphere damages the O-Zone layer and it was found in the 1980s that the constant use of R-12 and R-22 had caused a hole to form in the O-Zone. Numerous countries banded together and formed the Montreal Protocol to ban O-Zone depleting substances such as R-22.

In 2010 the ban of R-22 began. The first step was that NO new machines manufactured or imported in the United States could take R-22. The new machines had to take an alternative O-Zone friendly refrigerant. The default replacement that was chosen was R-410A. When the 2010 phase out hit the price of R-22 climbed substantially and has held steady at about $290-$300 a cylinder for a pallet. Even quite a bit higher when buying a single jug at about $380-$400 a cylinder.

In 2015 there was another step in the phase out of R-22. This step involved the United States to cut ninety percent of it’s consumption and imports of R-22. In November of 2014 I predicted that the new 2015 reduction would cause the prices of R-22 to go even higher, but surprisingly that did not happen. At least not yet.

R-22’s phase out schedule can be found by visiting the EPA’s site by clicking here or by reading an excerpt below:

January 1, 2004:
The Montreal Protocol required the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 35% below the U.S. baseline cap. As of January 1, 2003, EPA banned production and import of HCFC-141b, the most ozone-destructive HCFC. This action allowed the United States to meet its obligations under the Montreal Protocol. EPA was able to issue 100% of company baseline allowances for production and import of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b.
January 1, 2010:
The Montreal Protocol requires the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 75% below the U.S. baseline. Allowance holders may only produce or import HCFC-22 to service existing equipment. Virgin R-22 may not be used in new equipment. As a result, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system manufacturers may not produce new air conditioners and heat pumps containing R-22.
January 1, 2015:
The Montreal Protocol requires the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 90% below the U.S. baseline.
January 1, 2020:
The Montreal Protocol requires the U.S. to reduce its consumption of HCFCs by 99.5% below the U.S. baseline. Refrigerant that has been recovered and recycled/reclaimed will be allowed beyond 2020 to service existing systems, but chemical manufacturers will no longer be able to produce R-22 to service existing air conditioners and heat pumps.

R-22 Conclusion

R-22 is going away, rather you like it or not. Every year it gets more expensive. I wrongly predicted that the price would go up to around $500 a jug in 2015 due to the reduction in supply but that is not to say that the price won’t still go up. After all, the inventory is shrinking and there is still a large amount of R-22 units running in the United States. There will be a demand even with this reduction in production.

In conclusion I predict R-22’s price to rise, but not substantially over 2015. At the end of 2015 I can see R-22 being bought at about $330-$350 a cylinder for pallet and about $420-$430 for individual cylinders.

Again, if you are interested in purchasing R-22 by the jug please visit our Amazon partner by clicking this link. Please note that in order to purchase R-22 you will need to be 608 licensed with the EPA.


1234YF Refrigerant & Refrigerant
HoneyWell’s Solstice 1234YF Private Brand

1234YF is the new HFO replacement for R-134a automobile applications. It is seeing widespread usage in Europe but it is still very rare to see in the United States. There are a few manufacturers using it today on their new models of cars but you will begin to see 1234YF units more and more over 2015 and in future years. Remember, 134a is going away and 1234YF is the recommended replacement. The only other viable alternative at this time is Carbon Dioxide units, but these are still being experimented with at this time.

Here’s the downside. The price of 1234YF is VERY high. Now, I’m not sure why the price is so high. My guess would be either the supply is extremely low at this time, or the manufacturing process is a lot more complicated compared to it’s HFC counterparts. Today the price on a ten pound jug of 1234YF is sitting around $700 a jug. (I don’t even know anybody buying pallets of this stuff yet.) The hope is that this price will begin decline over the years as it becomes more mainstream through the United States.

1234YF Conclusion

1234YF is still fairly new to the US market and is seeing a very high introductory price. I do not see this price changing much, if at all, in 2015. My prediction is that it will stay right at $700 a jug give or take $20 higher or lower.

If you are interested in purchasing 1234YF refrigerant then I would highly recommend visiting Refrigerant Depot out of Orlando, Florida by visiting this link. They are an official Honeywell Refrigerants distributor and will provide the product right to your door.

Final Conclusion

Just remember that refrigerants are a commodity and the pricing changes daily. A few tips before I leave on buying refrigerant:

  • If you can, buy product in the dead of winter. Prices are cheap and vendors want to unload their excess product. You can usually get quite a deal.
  • Watch the market and look for incoming phase outs. You never know when the price will skyrocket.
  • Don’t be afraid to sit on refrigerant inventory.  It doesn’t go bad and you may end up saving yourself a fortune.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson




How do Refrigerants Impact Today's Environment?

How do Refrigerants Impact the Environment?

Before I can answer that question there is the need to point out that there are a variety of different classes of refrigerants that are on the market today throughout the world. I will be going over the top three classes at this point in time. One thing to note is that yes, refrigerants do cause damage to the O-Zone and they do contribute to global warming… but when you compare them to other global warming contributors you will be shocked at the minimal effect that refrigerants have on today’s environment.

For example, check out the below pie graph from the EPA’s website. Notice anything? I do. One percent. Fluorinated gases contribute just 1% to the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the world. (Keep in mind these are HFCs we are talking about.)

Refrigerant Greenhouse Gas Emissions (1% as F Gases)
Refrigerant Greenhouse Gas Emissions (1% as F Gases)


R-22 30 Pound Refrigerant Cylinder
R-22 30 Pound Refrigerant Cylinder

CFCs, or chloroflurocarbons, were the first refrigerants that saw mainstream use through the world. The first of it’s kind was R-12 that was invented in the early 20th century by General Motors & DuPont. It began widespread usage in the 1920s and was the primary refrigerant for all applications up until the 1950s. During the 50’s an alternative to R-12 called R-22 was introduced. R-22 was easier on the compressors and didn’t require as big of pipes to flow through. This made things easier and also resulted in less part failures.

The problem with R-12 and R-22 is the Chlorine. It was found that in the 1970s that the Earth’s O-Zone layer was depleting above the Arctic. The O-Zone layer is a layer in the Earth’s stratosphere which contains a high concentration of O-Zone. O-Zone is a naturally forming molecule that helps to absorb the sun’s ultraviolet rays. It was found that Chlorine was a leading contributor to the depleting and cause to the hole in the O-Zone layer. A depleted O-Zone would mean more intense ultraviolet rays from the sun resulting in a variety of problems including Global Warming.

In 1987 the Montreal Protocol was announced. The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty across many countries designed to help combat the damaged O-Zone layer. One of it’s initiatives was to phase out CFCs in first world countries, and eventually throughout the world. In 1994 the United States discontinued R-12 in automotive applications. R-12 was replaced with the HFC alternative R-134a. R-134a does not contain Chlorine so it provided a solution to the O-Zone problem. In 2010, in compliance with the Montreal Protocol, the United States announced discontinuation of R-22 in future applications. All new machines would be orientated towards the new HFC R-410A. It’s the same story on this one as well, the 410A does not contain Chlorine.

Did the protocol work? In short, yes. The Montreal Protocol was a huge success throughout the world. It’s often regarded as the most successful international treaty to date. It is expected that the O-Zone layer will return to 1980 levels by the year 2045. But, something else was on the horizon…


HFC Refrigerant being added to Montreal Protocol
HFCs being added into the Montreal Protocol? It may soon be a reality.

In response to the Montreal Protocol companies needed to find an alternative to the widely used CFCs R-12 and R-22. The answer was HFCs. HFCs include R-134a, R-410A, and R-404A. (There are others, but these are the most popular at this time.) The first mainstream use of HFCs began in 1994 when we switched from R-12 over to R-134a in automotive applications. Shortly after we switched from R-502 over to R-404A. Lastly, in 2010 we switched from R-22 over to the HFC R-410A, also known as Puron.

So, we can celebrate now! No more CFCs and Chlorine damaging the O-Zone, right? WRONG. Come to find out HFC refrigerants have a very high GWP, or Global Warming Potential. GWP basically means how much heat a certain product can trap into the atmosphere. For example, Carbon Dioxide has a GWP of 1 and the R-134a HFC refrigerant has a GWP of 1,430. Quite the difference here. A table of refrigerants and their global warming potential can be found by clicking this link to the EPA website. We have a completely new problem to deal with now. Keeping that in mind, I am going to refer to the pie chart that I posted earlier that illustrates that yes, refrigerants are putting greenhouse gases into the environment, but the significance is so small compared to the other offenders. 1%!!!!

Now instead of the O-Zone layer everybody is concerned about HFCs and the greenhouse gases that they are releasing. The European Union has already banned usage of R-134a in all new vehicles and the United States is not too far behind. There were a lot of ‘voluntary’ measures announced in 2014 by the Obama Administration. You can read about those by clicking here. On top of all that the three North American countries have submitted an amendment to the Montreal Protocol that would eventually phase-out all HFCs throughout the world just as the CFCs were done earlier. Nothing has been decided and added to the protocol at this time but it is only a matter of time before it is added. The main opposition countries have begun to make concessions and I feel that over the next year we will see HFCs added to the protocol. R-134a is on the way out and R-404A is being voluntarily phased out as well. R-410A will be coming soon.

HFO Refrigerants

1234YF Refrigerant & Refrigerant
HoneyWell’s Solstice 1234YF Private Brand

Third time’s a charm, right? Well, let’s hope so. To replace the HFCs that are slowly being phased out DuPont and HoneyWell have come out with a new class of refrigerants called HFOs. The first in it’s class is the 1234YF HFO. It is primary designed to replace R-134a. 134a has a GWP of 1,430 and the new 1234YF has a GWP of 4. This is obviously an improvement. HFO does not damage the O-Zone layer and it has a very low Global Warming Potential. The question is… what is going to go wrong with this one? There HAS to be another factor here that someone has not thought of. Don’t get me wrong I am all for having more efficient and cleaner refrigerant but at times it almost seems like we are running in circles chasing our tails. Either way DuPont and HoneyWell along with other companies are diving head into production and distribution of the new HFOs. Many automotive manufacturers have begun the switch as well.


Well, we went from damaged O-Zone layers to Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gases. Now we have the HFO alternatives coming to market with very little environmental detriments, or so we believe. Only the future can tell if HFOs are here to stay or if we will phase these out as well.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson


Top 5 Reasons Why You Should Buy Refrigerant in Bulk

How many of you are buying your refrigerant 410a or R-22 cylinders one, two, or three at a time? Well, I have news for you. STOP! You’re throwing money down the drain!

1) Competitive Pricing Available

Best Refrigerant pricing and cost per cylinder!

Well, this is an obvious one, but you will end up saving quite a bit per cylinder when you buy a pallet of forty cylinders at a time. Depending on where you’ve been buying and who you have been buying from you can save upwards of $5, $10, or even $20 a cylinder. So, doing the math you could potentially save $800.00 by purchasing in pallet quantities rather than individual jugs.

The savings can increase even more if you buy in multiple pallet quantities. Depending on your size, some locations can handle five pallets, some ten, and some even a full trailer load of refrigerant. The savings on trailer load orders can be quite significant to your company. You can also mix and match a trailer load with varying types of refrigerant. You could do 10 pallets of R-22 and 10 pallets of R-410a that way you have your bases covered.

2) Pricing Security and Increased Margins

Secure Refrigerant Pricing

I mentioned pricing above but another factor to look at is the security in pricing you get when you purchase by the pallet. Refrigerant/Refrigerant is a commodity and the pricing can change in an instant. I’ve seen it jump $30-$40 a cylinder in a week.

You never know when the next big increase is going to hit. Buying in bulk ensures you and your company that your pricing is secure and stable even if the market sky rockets. Not only that, but it also opens up the window of making increased margin when the market goes up. Or, if you are in a bidding situation where every dollar counts you get an edge against the competition with your lower priced refrigerant.

If you are considering buying for pricing security I would highly recommend to buy in the winter months of December or January. The demand is at it’s lowest here in the States at this point in time and you typically will not find a cheaper price throughout the year. In the hottest summer months I have seen prices double R-134a.

3) Peace of Mind

Peace of mind on pricing

Quite a few contractors do not keep a stock pile of refrigerant on hand, most buy when they need. But, what happens if you have a run on your refrigerant and you realize that your inventory is now depleted? Now you have to go to your supplier and pay an arm and a leg just to get a jug and get you out of a bind.

When buying in bulk you eliminate this potential problem by having a surplus of supply on hand and ready to go. Refrigerant is not going to go ‘bad,’ so if you have some left over from a previous big buy no harm is done. In fact year over year refrigerant pricing goes up, so if you do have old inventory you most likely have a lower cost than everyone else in the market.

4) No Freight Charges for Pallet Deliveries

Free freight on Refrigerant Orders

Did I mention that all pallet orders have freight pre-paid? No more paying shipping costs for smaller orders. We’ll send a truck to your door and drop the product off with not cost to you. If you place an order let us know if you have a loading dock or if you need the truck to have a lift gate.

5) Year End Taxes and Budgets

Refrigerant Tax

Most of you who run businesses are familiar with year end and want to pay as little taxes as possible. What better way to minimize your tax payments than to spend some of your profits on future inventory ?

By buying a pallet or two of product right before year end you shrink your tax bill while also having product available for the next year’s business. I know we’re already in January of 2015 but it is definitely something to keep in mind when year end sneaks up this year.


There are a lot of pros to buying refrigerant in bulk to you and your company as listed above and the only con is putting up with the initial investment to bring the product in.

If you are interested in purchasing by the pallet we want your business! Please visit our bulk purchasing page to contact us.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson


Refrigerant Changes, Opportunity or Headache?


I’ll be the first to tell you that all of these new regulations and phaseouts in refrigeration have caused major headaches and pains across the air conditioning industry. It seems that about every five to ten years there is a new regulation coming out on Refrigerant either in the United States or abroad. Just a couple years ago R-134a, automotive refrigerant, was completely banned in the European Union and it won’t be long until it’s banned in the United States and R-22 production is being cut by 90% in 2015. (It was cut 75% in 2010)

These phaseouts and regulations all begin back in 1987 when the Montreal Protocol was agreed upon by numerous nations around the world. The protocol was created to prevent any further damage to the O-Zone layer and to eventually heal the O-Zone layer. Chlorine, which is found in CFC refrigerants such as R-12 and R-22, was one of the leading causes to the damaged O-Zone. The approach taken was to phaseout the biggest offenders first and to then move down the list to the smaller chemicals.

The first phase out R-12 Refrigerant that took place in 1994. Before the phase out all cars took R-12 as it’s primary refrigerant, after the phase out automobile manufacturers switched over to the HFC alternative R-134a. This switch caused a lot of pain for technicians and mechanics as they had learn how to handle this new refrigerant as well as how to retrofit older systems that were still taking R-12.

We went through the same process again in 2010 when R-22 was banned in new units and was replaced with R-410A our Puron. R-22/410A is used primarily for home and commercial building units. 410A was a whole new story compared to 134a as it was a higher pressure chemical than it’s predecessor and had to be handled differently as well as have specially designed tools just for it’s application.


Yes, these changes are pain in the ass to all people involved. But, there is also a opportunity here for you or your company. Think about it, you have all of these old units out there that are taking CFC refrigerants. When that customer has a problem with their system this gives you the window to sell either retrofitting his system to accept the new refrigerant, or depending on his current unit, purchasing a whole new system that is compliant with the new regulations. Extra business, anyone?

The more knowledgeable you become on these changes the more opportunities will arise for you or you business. Study the regulations well and look for windows that your company can prosper in. A little unrelated but since the Affordable Care Act (ObamaCare) passed there have been many companies that have founded with their main purpose to help consumers navigate this new government law/regulation. Entire companies founded based on government regulation . Given, healthcare is on consumer’s minds a lot more than their air conditioners are but the point still stands. Just think about how many R-22 units are out there today. How much do you make on each retrofit? Your happy, the government is happy, and the environment is happy. Even if you don’t agree with the new regulations you really only have two choices either ignore them and let them come up later and bite you, or embrace them and hopefully capture more business because of them.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson


HFC Refrigerant being added to Montreal Protocol

Sneaking HFC Refrigerants into the Montreal Protocol?

The Montreal Protocol

25 years Montreal Protocol
It’s been 28 years since the Montreal Protocol has been enacted.

The Montreal Protocol was a treaty signed way back in 1989 by numerous countries in an attempt to slow down and eventually stop the hole that was forming in the O-Zone layer. It’s main objective was to eliminate the amount of Chlorine and Bromine being released into the atmosphere. This was done by coordinating world wide phase out of chemicals and gases that contained these two compounds. When speaking on Refrigerant or refrigerants the first of it’s kind affected was the automotive market when the ‘original’ Refrigerant R-12 was banned in 1994 and replaced with an HFC R-134a. Next up was the residential/commercial buildings with R-22 Refrigerant which was banned in 2010 and had it’s production and imports cut in half in 2015. (In case you weren’t aware R-22 prices are going up this year!) R-22 was replaced with R-410A or Puron. All new machines from 2010 or later will be taking the 410A Refrigerant. There were other refrigerants banned over the years but those two were the major players. The only other one that comes to mind is R-502 refrigerant for your heavier duty applications such as refrigerated transport. 502 was replaced with the HFC R-404A.

The Montreal Protocol treaty has been revised many times over the years to accommodate new technologies and advancements but it’s main objective has always been to reduce harmful chemicals affect on the O-Zone layer. HFC refrigerants do not cause harm to the O-Zone layer in the slightest. What they do have is a VERY high global warming potential by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. HFCs are the most potent GreenHouse gas in the world today and they are having an effect on the climate… just not an O-Zone affect.

President Obama’s Push to Add HFC Refrigerants

Obama pushing for phase-out of HFC Refrigerants
Obama pushing for phase-out of HFC Refrigerants

Over the years of President Obama’s presidency one of his main goals was to work on Climate Change or Global Warming. I apologize in advance if partisanship sneaks into this article but I will do my best to remove any biased and just report what is actually happening. With that in mind Obama’s focal point on climate change is tackling HFCs that are currently in use here in the United States and throughout the rest of the world. There are a couple ways that he is going about this. Firstly, United States, Canada, and Mexico have all proposed an amendment to get HFCs added to the Montreal Protocol. Second, Obama has enacted executive actions to combat usage of HFCs. Thirdly, Obama has put pressure on the supply chain of HFCs and companies have made concessions to reduce HFC output/production.

Here is an announcement from the White Houses’ official website detailing the steps that Obama is taking through executive action and through voluntary measures by for profit companies in the United States:

Obama HFC Phase Out Fact Sheet

There are a few things to take away from this:

  • Obama is taking executive actions on Climate Change without congress. I don’t claim to be a legal expert so the only comment I will make is that I prefer congress to be involved rather it be a Democratic or Republican president in office. I’ve never been comfortable with executive actions. The below listing are some of his Executive Actions:
    • All Federal agencies, buildings, and institutions have been instructed to look for alternatives to HFCs when looking at their refrigeration needs. If you are bidding any government contracts you should definitely push for the HFC alternatives.
    • Federally owned buildings will be piloting new refrigeration technologies. This will allow companies test their innovative ideas.
    • The EPA will expand its listing of environmentally friendly HFC alternatives and publish them in their Significant New Alternatives Policy. (SNAP)
    • The Federal Government will be funding research and development on new HVAC technology and innovations from various companies and scientists.
  • The government has put pressure on the entire HFC supply chain from the manufacturers here in the United States to the distributors and even to the HVAC contractors.
    • The industry coalition of companies have agreed to reduce HFC usage and consumption by eighty percent by the year 2050.
  • There are billions being spent today and over the next ten to twenty years on research and development on a low global warming potential alternative to HFCs. The hope is to have a newer, better, refrigerant for future use. (But, these new refrigerants will probably be phased out in thirty years anyways!)
  • Coca-Cola has committed that all of it’s new purchases for refrigerant machines and equipment will be HFC free. Coca-Cola is a huge consumer of refrigerant and in 2014 alone they bought 200,000 HFC free units.
  • Carrier announced that it’s goal is to have all vehicles made in 2020 to be HFC free. (Goodbye R-404A!)
  • DuPont announced that it would reduce GreenHouse gas content of it’s refrigerants by ninety million tons in the United States and two-hundred and forty-five tons worldwide by the year 2025.
  • HoneyWell has committed to reduce it’s high global warming potential HFCs by fifty percent by the year 2020. It is doing this buy spending nearly a billion dollars in research and development into lower global warming potential HFCs.
  • ThermoKing, the transport refrigerant company, announced that it is switching all of it’s new vehicles over to R-404A alternative known as R-452A. R-452A has half the global warming potential as the 404A. ThermoKing is also offering retrofitting for existing vehicles. It is important to to note that at this time it is only available in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Once the new refrigerant has EPA approval it will be in the United States.

As you can see there is quite a bit of action already being taken on the phasing out HFC refrigerants in the United States. But, we are not the only country on board. The European Union has banned the use of the most popular HFC, R-134a, in all automotive production. They have switched over to an alternative refrigerant known as 1234YF. (All except for Germany.) You can read about that switch by clicking here. On top of that the three North American countries submitted an amendment to the Montreal Protocol in May of 2014. The amendment pushed for the official phaseout of all HFCs globally. It was reviewed in November but there was some resistance between major countries that caused the amendment to be put on hold.

India, China, and the Gulf States

India & China HFC Phase Out
India & China have agreed to push for phaseout of HFC Refrigerants

Even though North America and Europe are on board with phasing out HFCs the rest of the world was not. By the rest of the world I mean India, China, and the Middle East. Hell, if you add the populations of India and China that’s probably half the world right there! Now there are a few reasons for their opposition to the HFC amendment to the Montreal Protocol:

  • First things first… The Montreal Protocol was made to prevent damage to the O-Zone layer. HFCs do not cause damage to the O-Zone layer. SO, we’re adding an amendment to the O-Zone treaty that has nothing to do with the O-Zone. India and the Middle East states are calling us on our BS and asking for this amendment to be added to the United Nation’s climate change plan rather than the Montreal Protocol.
  • Another thing to keep in mind is that for India, China, and the Gulf States in the middle east is that they are all developing countries. Many of their leaders are concerned about the economic impact and the cost of switching all of their citizens over from HFCs to an alternative refrigerant. It was a headache switching everyone from R-22 over to R-410A here in the States. I can’t imagine what it would be like trying to do that in a developing nation like India.
  • And lastly, another big opposing point is that the United States holds almost all of the patents on these new alternative refrigerants. Works out great for us… but I can understand the other countries hesitation. Price gouging anyone?

With all of that being said it looks like we may have had a breakthrough in the end of 2014. Obama made some deep concessions with China and we were finally able to get them so sign a climate change agreement that included the eventual phase out of HFCs. Here is hoping they push for the amendment as well in the next Climate Summit. It also looks like India is slowly starting to drop it’s opposition. In the last global climate meeting India was surprisingly quiet and did not voice opposition to the amendment. At this point the only countries that are really left opposing are the middle east states and there are only a few left and there days are numbered.


So, in conclusion the world governments, including the United States, are pushing for an amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phaseout and eventually ban high global warming potential HFC refrigerants. Even though the Montreal Protocol was specifically designed to combat the damage to the O-Zone and the HFC’s do not harm the O-Zone layer… they’re just going to sneak that in there anyways. There has been resistance, but it is waning and it is just a matter of time before all the HFCs that we know today are completely phased out just like the CFCs of the past.

Thanks for reading,

Alec Johnson

And as always, if you’re looking to purchase any refrigerant please visit our bulk purchasing page!



R-410A / Puron cylinders for sale, best price per pound on the web!


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Bulk Purchasing

Interested in bulk purchasing? Looking to purchase one pallet, two, three, or even a trailerload of Refrigerant?  Visit our bulk purchasing page for more details!

R-410A Product Details

R410A freon, also known as Puron, was invented by Honeywell Corporation back in 1991. Although, Carrier Corporation was the first company to introduce R-410A to the residential market back in 1996. R410A is intended to be a replacement for R-22 freon. R-22 was ordered to be phased out by the EPA due to it’s harmful effects on the O-zone layer. As of January 1st, 2010 no new HVAC units using R-22 can be manufactured in the United States and in 2020 R-22 can no longer be manufactured in the United States. If you have some R-22 stored I would hold on to it until then… you’ll make a fortune!

ALL new units are to be geared towards R-410A freon. There is a boom coming for the R-410A market. R-410A is the future for all residential and commercial HVAC. Are you ready?

A few more facts about R-410A:

  • It should be noted that R-410A operates at a higher pressure than R-22 and CANNOT be used on older R-22 systems, same goes for using R-22 in newer systems.
  • R-410A requires specialized tools to handle the higher pressure as well.
  • R-410A does NOT contribute to O-Zone depletion.
  • R-410A does have a higher global warming potential. (2088 times the effect of carbon dioxide.)
  • R-410A is a mixed refrigerant. It is blended with HFC-32 and HFC-125, although they perform as a single refrigerant.
  • R-410A can be topped off if there is a leak of freon, rather than having to flush the whole system and replace with new product.

It should be noted that R410A is the future of home and commercial refrigerants but it does fall into the HFC category with R-134a and R-404A. I bring this up because HFCs do not cause harm to the O-Zone layer BUT they have been found to have a very large Global Warming Potential, or GWP. 410A’s sister 134a has been phased out entirely in the European Union and steps are being taken today in 2014 to begin phase out in the United States. So, keeping this in mind it only makes logical sense that Puron would be next… it’s just a matter of when. R-134a isn’t expected to be completely phased out until 2020. Once that is done I would predict that they will come for R-410A, but that could be ten to fifteen years down the road.


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Please note that Environmental Protection Agency law requires certain individuals to be licensed before purchasing some refrigerants. You will be required to provide your certificate number or declare the item will be resold to an EPA certified technician on certain types of Refrigerant. (R-410A & R-134A are excluded from this.)