R452A refrigerant is an HFO refrigerant, introduced into the market as a replacement for R-404A and R507A. The refrigerant, manufactured by both Honeywell and Chemours, consists of three components: R32, R125 and R1234yf.
Technicians that would love to know more about the refrigerant, its properties, benefits and limitations, here is an in-depth post on it. Feel free to contact us in case you need to clarify any information in this article or on any other blog post.
R452A Refrigerant Properties and Fact Table
The R452A refrigerant (otherwise known as Opteon XP44 or Solstice 452A) consists of three components: R32 (HFC), R-125 (HFO), and R1234yf (HFO). It is a zeotropic blend since all its components have different dew and bubble points.
|Refrigerant||Type of Refrigerant||% in the refrigerant|
The table below summarizes the basic properties of the refrigerant.
|Name (2):||Opteon XP44|
|Name (3):||Solstice 452A|
|Classification:||Hydrofluoroolefin (HFC + HFO|
|Status:||Active & Growing|
|Future:||Will be phased out from 2024|
|System Type:||systems requiring low discharge temperatures|
|Application:||low-temperature transport refrigeration applications|
|Replacement For:||R-404A and R-507|
|Ozone Depletion Potential:||0|
|Global Warming Potential:||2,141|
|Global Warming Risk:||Moderately high|
|Toxicity Levels:||Low degree toxicity (A1)|
|Flammability Levels:||Class 1 - No Flame Propagation|
|Boiling Point:||-46.9 °C ( -52.42 °F)|
|Critical Temperature:||75.1 ℃ (167.18 °F)|
|Critical Pressure:||40.1 bar (581.6 psi)|
|Molar Mass:||103.51 g·mol−1|
|Critical Density||506.7 kg/m3|
|Liquid Density||1237 kg/m3 at 0°C|
|Vapor Density||10.1 kg/m3 at -32°C|
|Vapor Pressure:||4.42 bar (25 °C)|
|Manufacturers:||Honeywell and Chemours|
|Manufacturing Facilities:||All Over Including: USA, Mexico, EU, China, and others.|
|EPA Certification Required:||608 or 609 Required|
|Require Certification to Purchase?||Yes|
|Purchasing:||Buy R452A in Bulk|
R-452A Pressure Chart
When diagnosing an air conditioner or a refrigerator, a technician will first want to look at a pressure-temperature chart (also known as a PT Chart).
The document offers vital information on the pressure of a refrigerant at various temperature points. Without this, it can be difficult to recover the refrigerant you want to replace or charge into the system. The technician would operate the system blindly, which can otherwise damage the entire heating and cooling system.
So, here’s a link to a detailed PT chart we have written several months ago for R-452A.
Is R452A a Drop-in Replacement for R-404A
When searching for a refrigerant replacement, one thing people consider is replacement costs. But that depends on whether the refrigerant is a drop-in replacement or a retrofit.
Drop-in replacements are replacement refrigerants that don’t need you to change any of the system components to fit them into it. Retrofits require the technicians to change some of the system components to fit the new refrigerant into the system.
But how do you know whether the refrigerant is a drop-in replacement or a retrofit?
Technicians compare the properties of the two refrigerants. In this case, both R404A and R452A have similar properties, which makes it a drop-in replacement for R404A. For instance:
- They use the same lubricant- POE
- They have close boiling points, critical temperature, liquid density, and vapor density
- They have matching performance and compressor discharge temperatures
Check the table below to compare the properties of both refrigerants.
|Boiling points (0C / 0F)||-46.5/ -51.7||-47/ -52.6|
|Critical temperature (0C/ 0F)||72.1/161.8||74.9 / 166.8|
|Critical pressure (bar / psig)||37.3 / 54.1||40.0/580.2|
|Liquid density (kg / m3)||1010||1093|
|Vapor density (kg / m3)||10.7||10.1|
From the information above, R452A refrigerant is an ideal replacement for R404A systems. In fact, the interesting thing is that new units – especially in the transport refrigeration sector- are opting for R-452A because of its energy efficiency.
Note that R-452A is also a drop-in replacement for R-507A. They have similar properties. So, you don’t have to change any system components when charging a system that used R-507A refrigerants.
Applications of the Refrigerant
R-452A is a common refrigerant in the transport refrigeration industry. Companies are now using the refrigerant in new units instead of R404A. Most trucks that transport dairy, meat, or ice creams in the United States and Europe use R-452A instead of R404A. You can check this article to find out why manufacturers are opting for it.
Other applications of R452A:
- Used in cold storage rooms to store fruits, vegetables, processed meat, dairy products, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, etc
- Used in refrigerated counters
- Found in refrigerated display cases
What are some benefits of using this refrigerant?
1. Lower GWP than R-404A and R-507A
Environmental friendliness is a huge concern that comes up when manufacturers are selecting the best refrigerant for new units. If the refrigerant has a high ozone depletion potential or global warming potential, it’s high likely that it won’t be in use.
R452A refrigerant is a good replacement for R-404A and R-507A simply because it’s an HFO refrigerant with a lower global warming potential. Both R404A and R-507A have GWPs close to 4000, while R-452A’ GWP is two times lesser. This makes R-452A a more environmentally friendly option to the others.
2. Low operation costs
One of the benefit of using a drop-in replacement for any refrigerant (like in the case of R452A and R404A) is it lowers the cost of replacement. In other words, you don’t need to invest in new compressors or any other components to replace R404A with R452A.
Retrofit replacements, even when they are environmentally friendly options, can be expensive to charge into a new system. You have to change the existing lubricant, compressor, and any other components useful in the heating and cooling process.
3. Energy efficient
Besides being an environmentally friendly refrigerant, R452A improves the energy efficiency of systems that initially used R-404A refrigerants. In a recent experiment to compare the energy efficiency of both refrigerants, scientists found that:
- The Coefficient of Performance of the system increased between 3% to 8% when using R-452A
- Systems that used this refrigerant consumed less power – saving on energy costs
- The cooling capacity of the system decreased by 2%: Meaning the system doesn’t need to overwork to cool a space
4. Safe to use
R452A refrigerant is not flammable if exposed to fire and has a low level of toxicity. This not only makes it safe to use but also easy to work with, especially in a situation of a leak.
Note: Although the refrigerant is not toxic, you shouldn’t inhale it. Doing so can cause serious damage to your respiratory system.
Cons of Using R452A
Although the R452A refrigerant is an energy efficient refrigerant, it also comes with a few limitations. One of them is:
1. It’ll be phased out
R-452A doesn’t have any ozone depleting potential since it doesn’t contain chlorine. However, it has a moderately high GWP, which makes it a candidate for being phase out under the Kigali Amendment.
Hence, the reason experts in the refrigerant industry refer to it as a “mid-term” replacement for R404A because of this.
The other reason why it might not be a good refrigerant:
2. There’s a temperature glide
R452A refrigerant is a zeotropic blend that consists of three components. These three refrigerants have different dew and bubble points, which creates a temperature glide during the heating and cooling process.
A temperature glide, in the end, affects the cooling efficiency of a refrigerant, causing it to consume more power to heat or cool a space.
We have come to the end of the article, folks. That’s all you need to know about the R452A refrigerant. If you have any questions about the refrigerant (or any other), let us know. We’d love to hear from you.